Aardvarks: Africa’s Nocturnal Earthmover


Aardvarks: Africa’s Nocturnal Earthmover

Aardvarks, often called the “earth pig” due to their pig-like snout and burrowing habits, are a unique mammal native to Africa. Known scientifically as Orycteropus afer, the aardvark is the only species in its order, Tubulidentata, characterized by its tubular teeth. This solitary creature is a vital part of the ecosystem, playing a significant role in aerating the soil and controlling insect populations. This article delves into the intriguing life of the aardvark, highlighting its habits, diet, and the challenges it faces in the wild.


They are nocturnal mammals that spend their days in burrows to escape the African heat, emerging at night to feed. Their name comes from the Afrikaans/Dutch for “earth pig,” a reference to their burrowing habits and pig-like appearance. Despite their name, aardvarks are not related to pigs; they are more closely related to elephants and manatees.

Amazing Facts about Aardvarks

They possess a remarkable ability to dig. Using their powerful claws, they can create extensive burrow systems in a remarkably short amount of time. An aardvark can dig a tunnel of up to 2 meters in length in just 5 minutes, a skill they use to escape predators and search for food.


They are found throughout sub-Saharan Africa in a range of habitats, from savannas and grasslands to forests, provided there is sufficient ground for burrowing and an ample supply of ants and termites, their primary food source. They use their long, sticky tongues, which can extend up to 30 centimeters (12 inches), to lap up insects.


The aardvark has a distinctive appearance, with a long, snout-like nose, large, rabbit-like ears, and a robust, almost humpbacked body. Their skin is thick and tough, providing protection from insect bites, and is covered in coarse, sparse fur. Adult aardvarks typically measure between 1 and 1.3 meters (3.3 to 4.3 feet) in length, with a tail of about 60 to 70 centimeters (24 to 28 inches) long, and weigh between 40 and 65 kilograms (88 to 143 pounds).

Types and subspecies of Aardvarks

The aardvark is considered a monotypic species, meaning that there are no subspecies or other species within its genus, Orycteropus. Its unique evolutionary lineage distinguishes the aardvark from other insectivorous mammals in Africa.

Predator and Threat

Natural predators of the aardvark include lions, leopards, hyenas, and pythons, which can attack them when they leave their burrows at night. However, habitat destruction and the bushmeat trade pose more significant threats to aardvark populations. Additionally, aardvarks are sometimes indirectly affected by pesticide use, which reduces their insect prey.


They are solitary creatures, coming together only to mate. The mating season is not strictly defined, but births tend to occur towards the end of the rainy season when food is plentiful. Females give birth to a single calf after a gestation period of about seven months. They raise the calf in the burrow until it is ready to forage for food independently.

How Aardvarks Communicate

We know little about aardvark communication due to their nocturnal and solitary nature. However, researchers believe they communicate through scent marks and possibly through low, grunting sounds, especially between mothers and their young or during mating.

Conservation Efforts

While the aardvark is currently listed as Least Concern by the IUCN, ongoing habitat destruction and other human activities necessitate monitoring to ensure their populations remain stable. Conservation efforts focus on habitat protection and reducing hunting pressures.

Pronunciation in Different Languages

  • Spanish: oso hormiguero
  • French: oryctérope
  • Mandarin: 土豚 (tǔ tún)
  • German: Erdferkel
  • Swahili: mhanga

Aardvarks, with their unique ecological niche and fascinating behaviors, captivate the interest of scientists and wildlife enthusiasts alike. Protecting these creatures and their habitats is essential for preserving Africa’s rich biodiversity and maintaining the health of ecosystems, where they play a crucial role.



What do aardvarks eat besides ants and termites?

  • Answer: While ants and termites constitute the majority of their diet, they may also consume other insects, fruits, and the larvae of beetles and other insects found within their burrows.

How do aardvarks defend themselves?

  • Answer: They primarily rely on their burrowing ability to escape predators. Their thick skin also provides some protection against bites and stings.

Can aardvarks swim?

  • Answer: Yes, they are capable swimmers. They can cross streams and rivers when necessary, using their powerful legs to propel themselves through the water.

Are aardvarks related to armadillos and anteaters?

  • Answer: Despite superficial similarities, they are not closely related to armadillos or anteaters, which are native to the Americas. Aardvarks are part of a distinct lineage native to Africa.

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